UnboundID LDAP SDK for Java 5.1.0

UnboundID LDAP SDK for Java version 5.1.0 has been released and is available for download from GitHub and SourceForge, and it is available in the Maven Central Repository. The release notes provide a pretty comprehensive overview of the changes since the previous 5.0.1 release, but here’s a summary:

  • We fixed an issue in which the JVM-default trust manager did not always correctly handle cross-signed issuer certificates when the presented chain included an expired issuer certificate. It will now check to see if it can build a valid path with an alternate trust anchor.
  • We added a new SchemaValidator class that can identify all kinds of problems with LDAP schema definitions. We also provide a new validate-ldap-schema command-line tool that will examine definitions contained in one or more LDIF files and report any problems that it finds.
  • We updated the in-memory-directory-server command-line tool to validate any schema definitions provided through the --useSchemaFile argument. Even if there are problems, the server will still try to use that schema to the best of its ability (as was previously the case). The --doNotValidateSchemaDefnitions argument can be used to disable the new validation if it is not desired.
  • We added a new ldappasswordmodify command-line tool that can be used to perform a self password change or an administrative password reset. It supports the password modify extended operation (as described in RFC 3062), and it can also change passwords using a regular LDAP modify operation or using an Active Directory-specific modification.
  • We added three new command-line tools for performing operations on data contained in LDIF files:

    • The ldifsearch tool can be used to identify entries that match a given set of search criteria.
    • The ldifmodify tool can be used to apply a set of add, delete, modify, and modify DN changes to LDIF data.
    • The ldif-diff tool can be used to identify differences between data in two provided LDIF files and report the differences in the form of LDIF change records.
  • We added a new version of the ldapcompare tool that can be used to perform LDAP compare operations in a directory server. The new version offers a lot of additional functionality like support for performing multiple compare assertions and using a variety of request controls, and it can generate parseable output in tab-delimited text, CSV, or JSON formats.
  • We updated the in-memory directory server to make it possible to add custom attributes to the root DSE. While it was already possible to replace the entire root DSE entry with a static entry, this new approach makes it possible to retain some dynamic content (for example, changelog-related attributes) while still customizing other attributes.
  • We made several changes in our support for entries with the ldapSubEntry object class:

    • We added a new RFC3672SubentriesRequestControl class with support for the LDAP subentries request control as described in RFC 3672.
    • The LDAP SDK already had support for an alternate version of the control described in draft-ietf-ldup-subentry through the SubentriesRequestControl class, but that class has been deprecated in favor of a new DraftLDUPSubentriesRequestControl class, which helps avoid confusion with the class that implements the RFC 3672 version of the control. The deprecated class is still fully functional and will be kept to preserve backward compatibility, but we recommend updating code that uses the old class for the sake of clarity.
    • The in-memory directory server has been updated with support for the RFC 3672 version of the control. It already had support for the draft-ietf-ldup-subentry version.
    • The in-memory directory server has been updated so that it will return entries with the ldapSubEntry object class if the filter includes an “(objectClass=ldapSubEntry)” component.
    • The ldapsearch command-line tool has been updated with support for the RFC 3672 version of the LDAP subentries control, using the new --rfc3672Subentries argument. It already had support for the draft-ietf-ldup-subentry version of the control through the --includeSubentries argument, and that argument is still available, but we now recommend using --draftLDUPSubentries instead for the sake of clarity.
  • We updated the ldapsearch tool to add a new “values-only” output format (as an alternative to the existing LDIF, tab-delimited text, CSV, and JSON output formats). If this output format is selected, then it will only output the values of the requested attributes without any entry DNs or attribute names. This can help extract raw attribute values from a directory server from a script without the need for any additional text processing.
  • We updated the ldapsearch tool to add a new --requireMatch argument. If this argument is provided and the search completes successfully but does not return any entries, then the tool will have an exit code of 94 (corresponding to the noResultsReturned result code) rather than zero. This argument does not have any visible effect on the output.
  • We updated the round-robin and fewest connections servers sets to expose the blacklist manager that they use to avoid trying to establish connections to servers that are believed to be unavailable.
  • We updated the manage-certificates tool to make it easier to list and export certificates from the JVM’s default trust store without needing to know the path to the appropriate file.
  • We improved the logic that the LDAP SDK uses when selecting ordering and substring matching rules for ordering operations involving attributes that are defined in the schema but whose definition does not specify an ordering matching rule. It will now try to infer an appropriate ordering matching rule from the equality matching rule before trying other alternatives like inferring a rule from the associated syntax or using a default rule.
  • We updated the LDAP command-line tool framework to make it easier and more convenient to communicate securely with the Ping Identity Directory Server (and other related server products). This includes:

    • We added a new TopologyRegistryTrustManager class that can use information in the server’s topology registry to determine whether to trust the certificates for instances in the topology.
    • If no trust-related arguments are specified when running the tool, it will now check the server’s default trust store and the topology registry to determine whether the presented certificate should be trusted. It will still also check the JVM’s default trust store, and it will still fall back to interactively prompting the user if the certificate cannot be trusted through other means.
  • We streamlined the process that LDAP command-line tools use to establish and authenticate connections when run in interactive mode. It will now recommend TLS encryption over unencrypted communication with a simplified set of arguments, and it will recommend simple authentication over unauthenticated connections. Further, when the tool is part of a Ping Identity Directory Server (or related server product) installation, it will read the configuration to determine the appropriate port to suggest when connecting to the server.
  • We made several improvements to the summarize-access-log tool that can be used to examine Ping Identity Directory Server access logs. These include:

    • You can now customize the maximum number of values to display for each item. It was previously hard-coded to use a limit of 20 values. If any values were omitted, then it will now tell you how many were left out.
    • You can now choose to de-anonymize the output to obtain the specific attribute values used in search filters and entry DNs (instead of displaying question marks as placeholders).
    • The output will now include information about the most common TLS protocols and cipher suites used for secure communication.
    • The output will now include the most common successful and failed bind DNs and the most common authentication mechanisms.
    • The output will now include the most common DNs used as alternate authorization identities (e.g., via the proxied authorization request control).
    • The output will now include the most common filters used for unindexed searches, the most common base DNs for searches with non-baseObject scopes, the filters for searches taking the longest to complete, and the most common filters for searches returning zero, one, or multiple entries.
    • When summarizing the most commonly invoked types of extended operations, the tool will now try to provide a human-readable name for the extended operation in addition to its OID.
  • We added client-side support for obtaining password policy state information from the Ping Identity Directory Server’s ds-pwp-state-json virtual attribute.
  • We added client-side support for the new populate composed attribute values and generate server profile administrative tasks in the Ping Identity Directory Server.
  • We added a new OID.parseNumericOID method that can be used to parse a provided string as a valid numeric object identifier, optionally performing strict validation. If the provided string does not represent a valid numeric OID, then the method will throw an exception with a message that explains the problem.
  • We improved the error messages generated for problems that may arise when parsing schema definitions.
  • We updated the schema parsing code so that it can now handle schema elements with a description value that is an empty string. Although empty descriptions (or other types of quoted strings) are not permitted in schema element definitions, some servers allow them. Empty descriptions are still not allowed by default, but that behavior can be overridden with a code change or a system property.
  • We added a new IA5 string argument value validator that can be used to require that the values of associated arguments are only permitted to contain ASCII characters. The manage-certificates tool has also been updated to provide better validation for certificate components that are required to be IA5 strings, including DNS names and email addresses in the subject alternative name extension.
  • We added support for encoding and decoding timestamps in the ISO 8601 format described in RFC 3339.
  • We updated the LDAP command-line tool framework so that if the --help-sasl argument is used in conjunction with a --saslOption argument that specifies the name of the SASL mechanism, the output will only include help information for that mechanism.
  • We fixed a bug in the StaticUtils.isASCIIString method that caused it to only look at the lowest byte for each character in the provided string.
  • We added new ByteStringBuffer utility methods, including getting individual bytes or sets of bytes at a specified position, for determining whether the buffer starts with or ends with a given set of bytes, and for reading the contents of a file or input stream into the buffer.
  • We added new StaticUtils convenience methods for reading and writing files as bytes, strings, or lists of lines.
  • We added support for new password policy state account usability warning and notice types for the Ping Identity Directory Server. The new types can be used to indicate that the account has too many outstanding authentication failures, but that the server will take some other action (for example, delaying the bind response) instead of completely preventing authentication.
  • We fixed an issue in the LDAP SDK’s JSON-formatted debug logging support for debug messages containing exceptions with another exception as the underlying cause.
  • We fixed an issue with the command-line tool framework that could prevent it from setting an argument value from a properties file even though that same value would have been permitted if it had been provided directly on the command line.
  • We updated the default standard schema provided with the LDAP SDK to include additional attribute syntaxes, matching rule, attribute type, and object class definitions.

UnboundID LDAP SDK for Java 5.0.1

The UnboundID LDAP SDK for Java is a fast, powerful, user-friendly, and completely free Java library for communicating with LDAP directory servers and performing other LDAP-related processing. We have just released version 5.0.1 of the LDAP SDK, and it is available for download from GitHub and SourceForge, as well as from the Maven Central Repository. The release notes are available online at https://docs.ldap.com/ldap-sdk/docs/release-notes.html.

This is a minor release that was primarily created in service of an upcoming release of the Ping Identity Directory Server, as it fixes an issue in a tool that only impacts that new release. Nevertheless, there are a couple of additional updates, so we’re making it publicly available.

The changes over the previous 5.0.0 release include:

  • We added a new LDAP connection logger API that can be used to keep a record of processing performed by the LDAP SDK, including successful and failed connection attempts, operation requests and responses (including non-final responses like search result entries, search result references, and intermediate responses), and disconnects. The LDAP SDK includes a connection logger instance that formats messages as JSON objects, but it’s an extensible API, so you’re free to create your own implementation using whatever format you want.
  • We have updated the LDAP command-line tool framework to make it possible to specify the address of the target directory server(s) using either –host or –address as an alternative to the existing –hostname argument.
  • We fixed an issue that prevented the collect-support-data tool from running properly in local mode when using a secure connection (either SSL or StartTLS). This functionality only applies to an upcoming release of the Ping Identity Directory Server, so existing installations should not have been affected, and new installations will have the fix.
  • We made minor updates to the usage output for several command-line tools to improve wording and fix typos. We also fixed typos in other messages used throughout the LDAP SDK.

Ping Identity Directory Server

The Ping Identity Directory Server version has been released. It doesn’t look like the release notes on the website have been updated yet, but the changes over the previous release include:

  • Fixed an issue that could cause the server to report an error when disabling an instance of the PingOne for Customers pass-through authentication plugin.
  • Improved the performance of password policy processing for operations targeting entries that reference password policies that are stored outside of the server configuration.
  • Updated file-based loggers, as well as the periodic stats logger and monitor history plugins, to add a logging-error-behavior property that can control the behavior the server exhibits if they encounter a write error. By default, the server will still write an error message to standard error, but the server can now be configured to enter lockdown mode to prevent normal clients from issuing requests that may not be properly logged.
  • Improved the performance of writing to temporary index files during LDIF import processing.
  • Fixed a potential memory leak that could occur when accessing the server via SCIM.
  • Fixed a potential off-heap memory leak that could occur when retrieving the version monitor entry.

UnboundID LDAP SDK for Java 5.0.0, now available under the Apache License

The UnboundID LDAP SDK for Java is a fast, powerful, user-friendly, and completely free Java library for communicating with LDAP directory servers and performing other LDAP-related processing. We have just released version 5.0.0 of the LDAP SDK, and it is available for download from GitHub and SourceForge, as well as from the Maven Central Repository. The release notes are available online at https://docs.ldap.com/ldap-sdk/docs/release-notes.html.

The most significant change in this new release is that the LDAP SDK is now available under the terms of the Apache License, Version 2.0, which is a very permissive OSI-approved open source license. Although it was already open source under the terms of the GNU GPLv2 and LGPLv2.1, the Apache License imposes fewer restrictions on how you can use the LDAP SDK. You are no longer required to offer to redistribute the source code (even if you want to use a modified version), and there’s no longer any concern about whether you need to keep the LDAP SDK jar file as a separate component. The Apache License is well respected and is often seen as more compatible and easier to use in non-open-source software than the GNU license, so we hope that this will make it easier to use in your applications, whether open source or proprietary. The LDAP SDK is still available for use under the terms of the GPLv2 and LGPLv2.1 (as well as the non-open-source UnboundID LDAP SDK Free Use License), but we recommend that new users consider using it under the Apache License.

Aside from adding the new license, we made several code changes in this release as well. They include:

  • The LDAP SDK offers an LDAPConnectionDetailsJSONSpecification class that allows you to define a JSON file with all of the settings needed to create and authenticate individual LDAP connections or connection pools. We’ve updated this class so that it’s now possible to indicate that when establishing a connection that is secured with SSL or StartTLS, the LDAP SDK should automatically trust any certificates signed by an authority in the JVM’s default set of trusted issuers. This was already the default behavior if you didn’t provide your own trust store (or choose to blindly trust all certificates, which isn’t recommended for production use), but it’s now possible to use this option in conjunction with a provided trust store so that it’s possible to trust a certificate either through that trust store or through the JVM’s default set of trusted issuers.
  • The KeyStoreKeyManager can be used to obtain a certificate from a key store file if one is needed during TLS negotiation. We have updated this class to provide an option to better validate that the key store can actually be used by this purpose with the settings that you provide. If you use this option and supply the alias of the certificate you wish to use, then the key manager will now verify that the alias exists in the key store, that it’s associated with a private key entry (as opposed to a trusted certificate entry, which only contains the public portion of a certificate and isn’t suitable for use if you need to present that certificate to the peer), and that all of the certificates in the chain are currently within their validity window. If you don’t specify a certificate alias, then the validation will make sure that the key store contains at least one private key entry in which all of the certificates in the chain are within their validity window.
  • The TrustStoreTrustManager can be used in the course of determining whether to trust a certificate presented by a peer during TLS negotiation. We have improved performance and concurrency for this trust manager by eliminating unnecessary synchronization that forced interaction with the trust store to be single-threaded.
  • We fixed an issue that could interfere with GSSAPI authentication if a JAAS login module configuration was loaded and cached by the JVM before the login attempt. In such cases, the cached configuration could be used instead of the one that was intended.
  • The LDAPDebuggerRequestHandler can be used to log detailed information about LDAP requests and responses that pass through an application using the LDAP SDK’s LDAPListener framework (including the in-memory directory server and the ldap-debugger command-line tool). We fixed an issue that could cause messages to be held up in an internal buffer rather than immediately written out as soon as they’re logged. In some cases, this could significantly delay the appearance of these messages or could prevent them from being written out at all if the amount of data to be logged was never enough to fill that internal buffer.
  • We added a new JSONAccessLogRequestHandler to the LDAPListener framework. This can log information about requests and responses as JSON objects, which are both human-readable and machine-parseable. While the existing AccessLogRequestHandler produces output that can be parsed programmatically to some extent, it is more optimized for human readability.
  • The LDAP SDK offers debugging logging support that can be helpful in diagnosing problems whose cause may not otherwise be readily apparent. Previously, the debug messages were logged in a form that was primarily intended to be human-readable rather than machine-parseable. They are now written in a JSON format that is both human-readable and machine-parseable.
  • The manage-certificates command-line tool provides a utility for interacting with certificate key and trust stores in the Java JKS format or the standard PKCS#12 format. When displaying detailed information about certificates in a key or trust store, the tool may not have been able to properly decode public key information for certificates with 384-bit elliptic curve public keys, and it also may not have been able to properly decode a subject alternative names extension that included one or more directoryName values. While it was still possible to display most of the information about the affected certificates, the updated version can now provide the full details about those elements.
  • The Ping Identity Directory Server includes a collect-support-data utility that can be used to gather a variety of information from a server installation that can be very useful for troubleshooting problems, tuning performance and scalability, and better understanding the environment in which the server is running. Previously, this utility could only be invoked by logging into the system on which the server instance is running and running the command-line tool. We have now added a couple of additional mechanisms for running the utility. It can now be invoked via an administrative task (either as an individual event that is requested by a remote client or as a recurring task that runs on a regular basis) that will create the resulting support data archive in a specified location on the system (which may be a shared filesystem for easier exfiltration). It can also be invoked via an extended operation that will run the tool and stream its output and the resulting support data archive back to the client in the form of intermediate response messages. Further, although the logic for actually collecting all of this support information remains in the server, we have added the collect-support-data command-line tool to the LDAP SDK so that it is easier to invoke the tool against a remote server without needing to install the server software on the client system.
  • The Ping Identity Directory Server provides a monitor backend that authorized clients can use to obtain a wealth of useful information about the state of the server, and the LDAP SDK includes support for retrieving and parsing the information in these monitor entries. We have updated the LDAP SDK’s support for the general monitor (that is, the top-level “cn=monitor” entry) to make it easier to obtain information about the cluster with which the server is associated, the location of the server instance, and a unique identifier that was generated for the server when the instance was initially configured.
  • The LDAP SDK offers a Version class that provides version information for the LDAP SDK, including the version number and information about the repository (e.g., the repository URL and revision ID) from which the LDAP SDK source code was obtained. This information was previously only offered as public static final constants, but referencing these constants from third-party applications could lead to unexpected behavior thanks to a “feature” of the Java compiler that will directly imbed the values of those constants (even if they come from a separate library) in the Java bytecode that it generates. This means that if your application references these LDAP SDK version constants and you compile it against one version of the LDAP SDK, then those version constants will be placed directly into the compiled bytecode. If you upgrade the LDAP SDK version that you use without recompiling your application (e.g., by just replacing the LDAP SDK jar file with a newer version), the code referencing the LDAP SDK version would still have the old values. To address this, we have updated the Version class to provide methods for obtaining the values of all the version constants. If you use these methods to obtain the values rather than referencing the constants directly, then you will always get the correct LDAP SDK version information even if you update the LDAP SDK without recompiling your application.

My Top 300 Films of the 2010s

Since the 2010s are coming to an end, everyone is posting their top movies of the decade. So I decided to give it a go.

According to my records, I saw 1,786 unique first-run movies in a theater between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2019 (well, technically December 30, 2019, since I’m seeing the absolutely wonderful 1960 film The Apartment tonight rather than a new release). I went through that list and culled it down to my top 300 films. I’m not going to bother trying to pare it down any further, and I’m certainly not going to try to rank them so they’re presented alphabetically.

This list only includes films that I first saw in a theater, and only during their initial run (or at film festival screenings). It would be too much work for me to try to also include films that I first saw somewhere other than a theater, and it would also be too much work to include films that have been released since the beginning of 2010, but for which my first viewing was after its initial run. Also note that it includes films that IMDb lists with a release date before 2010, but for which it didn’t come to Austin, TX until after the beginning of 2010.

Anyway, here’s my list:

Ping Identity Directory Server

We have just released version of the Ping Identity Directory Server, along with new releases of the related Directory Proxy Server, Data Synchronization Server, Metrics Engine, and Delegated User Admin products. The release notes include a comprehensive list of features, enhancements, and fixes, but here are some of the most notable changes included in the release:

  • We have expanded support for the manage-profile tool to include the Directory Proxy Server, Data Synchronization Server, and Data Governance Server products. This allows you to set up, update, or reconfigure a server using the information in a provided profile. The profile defines the configuration, schema, extensions, certificates, encryption settings, and all the other components needed to configure a server instance exactly the way you want it.
  • We have updated the Directory Proxy Server so that it can use the topology registry to automatically discover and start using Ping Identity Directory Server instances without needing to change the Directory Proxy Server configuration.
  • We have improved our support for integrating with third-party monitoring services like Splunk by updating the stats collector plugin to support sending data in StatsD format to a specified endpoint. We have also updated the periodic stats logger so that it supports generating JSON-formatted output. The former CSV output format is also still supported. And we have added a new “Status Health Summary” monitor entry that provides a summary of the server’s current assessment of its health, which especially simplifies monitoring with third-party monitoring over JMX.
  • We have updated the Directory Server so that it now supports SCIMv2 in addition to the existing SCIMv1 and Directory REST API options for REST-based access to directory data. Formerly, SCIMv2 was only available through the Data Governance Server.
  • We have added a new replace-certificate tool that makes it easier to replace a server’s listener or inter-server certificate. The tool offers a non-interactive mode that is suitable for scripting support, but it also has a full-featured interactive mode that can walk you through the process of obtaining and installing a new certificate. The interactive mode will also provide you with the necessary commands to achieve the same result in non-interactive mode.
  • We have dramatically improved our support for account status notifications. We have defined a couple of new notification types that can be raised whenever an entry is created or modified by a request that matches a given set of criteria. We have also defined many new properties that can be used in the notifications. And we have added a new multi-part email account status notification handler that can be used to send plain-text and/or HTML-formatted email messages whenever an appropriate event occurs within the server.
  • We have added a new password validator that leverages the Pwned Passwords service to make it easier to reject passwords that are known to have been compromised in data breaches.
  • We have added a new password storage scheme that uses the Argon2i password hashing algorithm, which was selected as the winner of a 2015 password hashing competition.
  • We have updated our support for the PBKDF2 password storage scheme so that it offers additional variants that leverage the 256-bit, 384-bit, and 512-bit SHA-2 digest algorithms. We have also updated the default salt length and iteration count values in accordance with NIST SP 800-63B recommendations.
  • We have improved the server’s support for generating passwords. We have added a new request control that can be included in add requests to have the server generate a password for the new entry and return it to the client in a corresponding response control. We have also added a new extended operation that can be used to request that the server generate one or more passwords that can be provided to the end user as new password suggestions when creating an account or changing a password.
  • We updated the Data Synchronization Server’s password sync agent for Active Directory so that it encodes passwords using a salted 256-bit SHA-2 digest rather than the previous salted SHA-1 digest. The SHA-1 digest can still be used if necessary for purposes of backward compatibility.
  • We updated the Data Synchronization Server’s create-sync-pipe-config tool to add support for using the PingOne for Customers service as a sync source or destination.
  • We updated Delegated Admin’s support for constructed attributes. Constructed attributes can now be made read-only, and they can also reference other constructed attributes. Constructed attribute values can now also be updated when any of their dependent attributes change.
  • We updated the HTTP external server configuration to make it possible to specify the alias of the certificate chain to be presented during mutual TLS negotiation.
  • We added a new JVM-default trust manager provider that can be used to automatically trust any certificate signed by one of the trusted issuers in the JVM’s default trust store.
  • We have added a new Server SDK API for sending email messages.
  • We updated the exec task to make it possible to specify the current working directory for the command that is being executed. The server previously always used the server root as the current working directory, and that is still the default if no alternate path is specified.
  • We updated the collect-support-data tool to add a --duration argument that will cause it to capture log content for the specified duration up to the current time.
  • We fixed an issue that prevented assured replication from being honored for requests received via SCIM or the Directory REST API.
  • We fixed an issue in which the restore tool might not have automatically restored all of the dependencies of an incremental backup.
  • We fixed an issue in which the Directory Proxy Server could incorrectly report a success result for an entry-balanced search operation in which all attempts in a backend set failed with a timeout.
  • We updated log file rotation listeners, including the summarize access log and copy log file listeners, so that they perform their processing in a background thread. This can help ensure that their processing does not temporarily block logging attempts on very busy servers.
  • We fixed an issue in which the verify-index tool could report spurious error messages when examining index keys containing multi-byte UTF-8 characters.
  • We fixed an issue in which escaped special characters in schema extensions may not be handled properly. This could cause unexpected or incorrect behavior in cases where those values are interpreted by the server (for example, in the X-VALUE-REGEX constraint in attribute type definitions).
  • We fixed an issue that could cause access log messages for bind and StartTLS operations to report the client connection policy that was previously in use for the connection rather than the new policy that was assigned as a result of the associated operation.

UnboundID LDAP SDK for Java 4.0.14

We have just released version 4.0.14 of the UnboundID LDAP SDK for Java. It is available for download from the releases page of our GitHub repository (https://github.com/pingidentity/ldapsdk/releases), from the Files page of our SourceForge repository (https://sourceforge.net/projects/ldap-sdk/files/), and from the Maven Central Repository (https://search.maven.org/search?q=g:com.unboundid%20AND%20a:unboundid-ldapsdk&core=gav).

The LDAP SDK release notes are available at https://docs.ldap.com/ldap-sdk/docs/release-notes.html, but the changes included in this release are as follows:

  • Fixed an issue in which LDAP URLs with consecutive percent-encoded bytes were not decoded correctly.
  • Fixed an issue that could cause the LDAP SDK to incorrectly handle data read from a server when the communication was protected with SASL integrity or confidentiality. Thanks to Boris Danilovich for reporting the problem and identifying the cause.
  • Fixed an issue that prevented the searchrate tool from running if neither a base DN pattern nor an LDAP URL pattern was provided.
  • Improved the logic that the LDAP SDK used when selecting the cipher suites to use when establishing a TLS-secured connection. Weaker suites are disabled, and the enabled suites are prioritized so that those offering forward secrecy and stronger encryption are preferred.
  • Added a new FullLDAPInterface that extends LDAPInterface and adds support for close, bind, and processExtendedOperation methods. The existing LDAPConnection, AbstractConnectionPool, and InMemoryDirectoryServer classes have been updated to implement this interface.
  • Added a new non-final MockableLDAPConnection class that makes it easier to mock an LDAPConnection instance. It implements FullLDAPInterface and wraps a provided LDAPConnection. If you create a MockableLDAPConnection subclass, then you may override any of the FullLDAPInterface methods to provide whatever logic you desire for them. Any non-overridden methods will invoke the corresponding method on the provided LDAPConnection instance.
  • Fixed a minor typo in the ldapsearch usage information

UnboundID LDAP SDK for Java 4.0.13

We have just released version 4.0.13 of the UnboundID LDAP SDK for Java. It is available for download from the releases page of our GitHub repository, from the Files page of our SourceForge repository, and from the Maven Central Repository.

This is a minor update that is primarily intended to serve the upcoming release of the Ping Identity Directory Server, but it also includes some useful debugging enhancements and improvements in its support for X.509 certificates. The full release notes are available online, but the primary changes included in this release are as follows:

  • Added support for debugging connection pool interactions, including checking out and releasing connections, as well as establishing and closing connections for use in the pool.
  • Fixed an issue in the prompt trust manager that could cause it to incorrectly display a warning for some certificates with a basic constraints extension that included the optional path length constraint.
  • Updated the manage-certificates check-certificate-usability command to add an additional check to see whether the certificate at the root of the chain is found in the JVM’s default set of trusted issuer certificates. If it is not found, the tool will display a notice, but it will still complete with a success result.
  • Fixed an issue in manage-certificates that could prevent it from correctly showing the key agreement usage when displaying verbose information about a certificate with the key usage extension.
  • Fixed an issue that could prevent properly decoding an authority key identifier extension that included the optional authorityCertIssuer element in an X.509 certificate.
  • Made the ManageCertificates.readCertificatesFromFile method public so that it can be used outside of the LDAP SDK. This method can be used to read a set of PEM-encoded or DER-encoded X.509 certificates from a specified file.
  • Made the ManageCertificates.readCertificateSigningRequestFromFile method so that it can be used outside of the LDAP SDK. This method can be used to read a PEM-encoded or DER-encoded PKCS #10 certificate signing request from a file.
  • Updated the passphrase-encrypted output stream to provide an option to override the default key factory iteration count.
  • Updated support for the exec task to add an option to specify the path to use as the current working directory when invoking the specified command. Previously, the server would always use the server instance root directory, and that will still be the default if no alternate working directory is specified.
  • Added an additional StaticUtils.getEnvironmentVariable method variant that can be used to provide a default value that should be used if the specified environment variable is not set.
  • Added an additional StaticUtils.getStackTrace method variant that allows you to limit the number of stack frames to include from code before the call into the LDAP SDK. Also, updated StaticUtils.getExceptionMessage when invoked for a NullPointerException so that it now shows all frames from the LDAP SDK (and anything that the LDAP SDK calls), and up to three frames from the code before the call into the LDAP SDK.

UnboundID LDAP SDK for Java 4.0.12

We have just released version 4.0.12 of the UnboundID LDAP SDK for Java. It is available for download from the releases page of our GitHub repository (https://github.com/pingidentity/ldapsdk/releases), from the Files page of our SourceForge repository (https://sourceforge.net/projects/ldap-sdk/files/), and from the Maven Central Repository (https://search.maven.org/search?q=g:com.unboundid%20AND%20a:unboundid-ldapsdk&core=gav).

The LDAP SDK release notes are available at https://docs.ldap.com/ldap-sdk/docs/release-notes.html, but the changes included in this release are as follows:

  • Fixed an issue in the write timeout handler that could prevent it from properly cleaning up a timer task object for a connection if an attempt to establish that connection failed. This regression, which was introduced in the 4.0.11 release, could lead to a gradual increase in memory consumption over time.
  • Updated the write timeout handler so that it will now shut down its background thread after all LDAP connections have been closed.
  • Fixed an issue with the JVM-default trust manager that could cause it to incorrectly abort TLS negotiation if the server presented only a partial certificate chain, and if the last certificate in that partial chain was not included in the JVM’s default set of trusted issuers but was signed by one of those issuers.
  • Corrected the result code used in the LDAPException that is thrown when attempting to parse a malformed schema element. We now use the correct INVALID_ATTRIBUTE_SYNTAX result code instead of the INVALID_DN_SYNTAX result code that had been used by mistake.
  • Fixed an issue in the way that the persistence framework constructed LDAP attributes for its internal processing. While it would have properly selected an appropriate matching rule based on the data type of the corresponding Java field when constructing attribute type definitions for inclusion in the server schema, it neglected to use that matching rule for client-side matching involving those attributes, but instead always used a default “case-ignore string” matching behavior.
  • Updated the manage-certificates tool to use the SHA-1 digest algorithm instead of 256-bit SHA-2 when generating the subject key identifier extension for certificates and certificate signing requests. This makes it possible to work around a limitation in Microsoft certificate authorities, which are apparently unable to handle CSRs with 256-bit subject key identifiers.
  • Fixed an issue in the search-and-mod-rate tool in which the search durations reported by the tool included not only the time required to process the search, but also the time required for the associated modify operations. Further, if the tool was configured to limit the rate at which modify operations would be attempted, the reported search durations could also include any wait imposed by the rate limiter.
  • Added client-side support for the SCRAM-SHA-1, SCRAM-SHA-256, and SCRAM-SHA-512 SASL mechanisms.
  • Added client-side support for a “generate password” request and response controls. When included in an add request sent to the Ping Identity Directory Server, the request control indicates that the server should generate a password for the entry and return it to the client in the corresponding response control. The ldapmodify tool has been updated to provide support for this control.
  • Added client-side support for a “generate password” extended operation. When sent to the Ping Identity Directory Server, this operation will cause the server to generate one or more passwords that may be suggested to the end user when creating or updating a user entry.
  • Updated the transform-ldif tool to provide options to exclude LDIF records by change type, and to exclude LDIF records that do not have a changetype.
  • Updated the command-line argument parser to provide a better error message if the value the user provides to a string or Boolean value argument is not in the set of allowed values for that argument. The error message will now include a list of the allowed values.
  • Updated the command-line tool interactive mode processor so that when it prompts for a password, PIN, or other sensitive value that does not get echoed to the screen, it will now ask the user to confirm the value to help ensure that they entered it correctly.
  • Updated the command-line tool interactive mode processor so that when the user asks to see the set of arguments that will be used when running the tool, it will now display the full command rather than just listing the arguments. Further, if the command spans multiple lines, then all but the last line will now include a trailing backslash. This makes it more convenient to run the command non-interactively because it can simply be copied and pasted.
  • Updated the argument parser to provide a more convenient way to define mutually dependent argument sets, such that if any argument in the set is provided, then all of the other arguments will also be required.
  • Updated the argument parser to allow applications to define their own custom interactive mode rather than using the default one that the LDAP SDK provides.
  • Added a set of StaticUtils.linesToString convenience methods that can convert a list or array of strings to a single string that includes line breaks after each line.
  • Added a set of StaticUtils methods for obtaining all of the addresses associated with the network interfaces available on the system, and to get the canonical host names associated with those addresses.

Password Policy Recommendations for the Ping Identity Directory Server

When using an LDAP directory server to authenticate users, the vast majority of those authentications will make use of a password. Even though the Ping Identity Directory Server supports multiple options for two-factor authentication, you’re still likely to use a password as one of those factors. As such, ensuring that you have a good password policy in place is an essential element of your server’s security configuration.

Obviously, the biggest risk when using password-based authentication is that someone will provide the correct credentials for an account that isn’t theirs, and will be able to do whatever the account owner can do. Some of the most common ways that this can happen are:

  • The account has a really simple, easily guessable password. Maybe they use the word “password” or some other common value. Maybe their password is the same as their username or email address. Maybe their password is the same as your application or service.
  • The account owner used the same username and password across multiple sites, and one of those other sites got breached. When this happens, attackers often try to use the breached credentials to log into other sites.
  • An attacker managed to get access to the encoded representation of a user’s password and was able to crack it through some means.

Some of these are things that are out of your control as a website owner. For example, no matter how careful you are with your own site, you can’t prevent some other site from getting breached and its credentials exposed. However, you can take steps to ensure that your site is better protected against these kinds of things. In this post, I’ll discuss options for creating a password policy that will help keep your site as safe as possible.

While some of the recommendations I provide here are specific to the Ping Identity Directory Server, there is a lot of generic advice in here as well, and that may be applicable to other types of directory servers.

Require Secure Communication

Most LDAP authentication schemes that involve a password send that password to the server in the clear, without any kind of encoding or transformation. There are some that do try to obscure the password (e.g., salted challenge-response authentication mechanisms), but they are typically garbage that actually dramatically weaken the security of your environment and should be avoided at all costs. All of the best password-based authentication mechanisms send the password in the clear, which means that you must ensure that all of the communication happens over a secure, encrypted connection.

The server offers a few options to help ensure that this is done. They are as follows, in order of strongest protection to weakest protection:

  1. Disable any connection handlers that allow insecure communication. If you only allow LDAPS and not unencrypted LDAP, then there is no chance that someone with the ability to observe the communication will be able to decipher it.
  2. Set the “reject-insecure-requests” property to “true” in the global configuration. While this will allow clients to establish insecure connections to the server, it will reject most requests issued over those connections until the client has used the StartTLS extended operation to convert that connection from an insecure one to one that is secure. However, this option isn’t as good as simply disabling all insecure communication because even though it ensures that clients won’t be permitted to authenticate with an unencrypted bind request, it can’t prevent the client from sending that request in the first place.
  3. Set the “require-secure-authentication” and “require-secure-password-changes” properties to “true” in the password policy configuration. These properties ensure that the server will reject any requests that attempt to authenticate or change passwords that are sent over an unencrypted connection. Like option #2 above, this won’t prevent the requests from being sent, but will merely reject them if they are. But it also won’t protect other sensitive information that may be transferred over the connection.

Use a Strong Password Storage Scheme

When the Directory Server receives a password to store in a user entry, it encodes that password with a password storage scheme. This helps protect that password so that anyone who gains access to the entry (whether over LDAP, in a backup of the database, in an LDIF export, or in some other form) won’t be able to determine what the clear-text password really is. When the server receives a bind request that contains a clear-text password, it will use the password storage scheme and information contained in the encoded password to determine whether the provided clear-text password matches the one used to create the encoded password.

The server offers a number of different password storage scheme options, that fall into different categories:

  • Some of them, like those that use the UNIX crypt algorithm or versions of the MD5 or SHA-1 digest algorithms, are only intended for legacy purposes like migrating already-encoded passwords from another data store. You definitely shouldn’t use these for new passwords unless you absolutely have to maintain backward compatibility with a legacy system for some period of time.
  • Some of them, like those that use AES or triple-DES, use reversible encryption to encode the passwords in a way that allows the server to obtain their original clear-text value. These should not be used unless you absolutely have to support a legacy authentication scheme (like CRAM-MD5 or DIGEST-MD5) that requires that the server be able to determine the clear-text representation of the password.
  • Some of them offer salted variants of more modern digest algorithms, like 256-bit, 384-bit, and 512-bit SHA-2 variants. These schemes are acceptable, especially if you have configured an appropriate set of password validators that require users to have strong passwords, but they are very fast, which means that an attacker can make a lot of guesses in a short period of time.
  • Some of them use algorithms that are intentionally designed to require a lot of CPU processing or memory access so that they take longer to compute, or so that it’s harder to compute a lot of them at the same time. We currently offer support for the PBKDF2, bcrypt, and scrypt schemes, and plan to add others in the future. These are the strongest options available, and they will definitely have a dramatic impact on how long it will take an attacker to brute-force a password, but they can also dramatically impact the performance of legitimate authentication attempts, and also the performance of an LDIF import that includes clear-text passwords that need to be encoded.

Ideally, you should encode passwords with the strongest scheme that you can tolerate based on your load. If you don’t need more than a few hundred authentications or password changes per second, then you should probably consider the “expensive” schemes to make it as difficult as possible for attackers that may get access to encoded passwords. But if your performance demands are such that you can’t afford enough servers to handle the authentication load with these expensive schemes, then at least use one of the strong modern digests.

Note that if you choose a particular scheme now, or if you have existing passwords encoded with legacy schemes, you aren’t stuck with them, and you don’t have to require all of your users to change their passwords to transition to stronger encodings. For that, we offer the deprecated-password-storage-scheme property in the password policy configuration. If a user has a password encoded with a deprecated scheme, the server will automatically re-encode it using the default scheme the next time they use that password to authenticate.

Require Strong Passwords

It’s important to ensure that passwords are encoded in a secure manner, but it’s even more important that the passwords are strong to start with. If a user has a password that can be easily guessed, then it won’t take long to crack it using even the strongest encoding.

The best practices for choosing secure passwords have changed over the last several years. Things that people used to think were good ideas have turned out to be not so hot. Some of the things that you shouldn’t do are:

  • Don’t require users to change their passwords on a regular basis for no reason. That’s just annoying to your users and doesn’t improve security in any meaningful way. In fact, it’s more likely to cause people to make bad decisions, like just keeping the same basic password but adding a counter to the end. You should only require users to change their passwords if you suspect that they may have been compromised, or if they’ve been reset by an administrator (e.g., because the user forgot what their previous password was).
  • Don’t impose a ridiculous upper limit on the length of a password. There’s just no good reason for it. All of the good password storage schemes that we provide generate the same encoded password length regardless of the size of the password being encoded, so you’re not saving any space by preventing long passwords. With all other things being equal, longer passwords are stronger than shorter ones, so you want to encourage people to choose long passwords. It is true that some algorithms may take longer to encode a really long password, so maybe don’t let people choose passwords longer than a few hundred characters, but there’s never a good reason to impose an upper limit of something like ten or twenty characters.
  • Don’t require passwords to have different classes of characters. It’s entirely possible to have a very strong password that is comprised entirely of lowercase letters, just as it’s entirely possible for a password containing a mix of lowercase and uppercase letters, digits, and symbols to be very weak. You certainly shouldn’t prevent people from using a mix of character types, but you also shouldn’t require it for no good reason.
  • Don’t impose ridiculously low limits on the number of times the same character may appear consecutively in a password. Long, randomly generated passwords are very strong, and yet it’s entirely possible that such passwords may have the same character appear two or three or four times in a row. It’s very frustrating to choose what is clearly a very strong password only to have it rejected for some stupid reason like this. If you want to prevent passwords comprised of repeated characters, like “aaaaaaaaaa”, then it would probably be better to require them to have a minimum number of unique characters than limiting the number of times the same character may appear in a row.

So what should you do? Despite being a government document, NIST Special Publication 800-63B has some really good advice. And here are some good guidelines that include these and other recommendations:

  • Don’t allow users to choose obvious or weak passwords. This includes commonly used passwords, dictionary words, and words related to the service that you’re operating. To help with this, the Ping Identity Directory Server offers a dictionary password validator that can reject attempts to use passwords in a given dictionary file, and we offer a couple of instances of that validator preconfigured with dictionary files to use with it: one with over 500,000 of the most commonly used passwords, and one with over 400,000 English words. We recommend that you also configure a validator with your own custom dictionary that includes at least words related to your organization and the products or services you provide., and you may also want to use dictionaries of non-English words. Also, we’ve got plans to provide additional options in this area in the near future.
  • Impose a minimum length for passwords (but not a maximum). If a password is too short, then it’s too easy to brute force. There are a couple of ways that you can do this in the Ping Identity Directory Server:

    • You can use the length-based validator to simply impose a minimum length. NIST 800-63B suggests at least eight characters, but to be honest, even a complex eight-character password can be cheaply brute-forced in a handful of hours.
    • Another option is to use the haystack validator, which uses the concept of password haystacks to evaluate a password’s complexity as a factor of both its length and the types of characters it contains. This is perhaps more complicated to explain to users, but it can do a better job of ensuring resistance to brute force attacks.
  • Prevent users from choosing passwords that are related to other information that you have about them. For example, you should not allow them to choose a password that matches their username, email address, telephone number, date of birth, etc. The Ping Identity Directory Server offers an attribute value password validator that can be used to ensure that passwords aren’t allowed to match (or optionally contain) the values of other attributes in the entry.
  • When users are changing their passwords, they should not be permitted to choose a new password that is too similar to their current password. For example, if their current password is “ThisIsMyStrongPassword1”, it’s probably a good idea to prevent them from choosing “ThisIsMyStrongPassword2” as their new password. To achieve this, the Ping Identity Directory Server offers a similarity validator that uses the Levenshtein distance algorithm to compare a proposed new password with the user’s current password (which would have to be provided as part of the password change, since we don’t recommend configuring the server to store passwords in a reversible form) to determine the minimum number of changes (characters added, removed, or replaced).
  • As noted above, it’s not a good idea to reject passwords just because they have the same password repeated a few times in a row, but it might not be a bad idea to require that they have a minimum number of different characters. The Ping Identity Directory Server offers a unique characters password validator that can accomplish this.
  • Let the user know what the requirements are. The Ping Identity Directory Server offers a get password quality requirements extended operation that you can use to programmatically retrieve information about the validation that the server will perform, and it offers a password validation details control that you can use to determine which requirements were satisfied and which were not when trying to set a password. I wrote an earlier blog post about using these features.
  • Recommend the use of a password manager, and recommend using them to generate long random passwords. Certainly don’t do anything that would discourage their use, like prevent users from pasting text into fields on login forms, or interfere with things that might legitimately happen in long random passwords (like having the same character repeated a few times).

If your service imposes additional requirements on password quality that can’t be enforced with the above validators, then I would first recommend taking a hard look at whether they are actually good requirements. Lots of organizations have really dumb rules that either weaken security or at least don’t do anything to improve it while also annoying the end users. But if it turns out that you do have a legitimate need to impose additional types of requirements, then our Server SDK provides an API that allows you to create your own custom password validator implementations.

Require the Current Password for Password Changes

When a user wants to change their password, it’s a good idea to verify that it’s actually them and not someone who has gotten access to their account (e.g., someone using a shared computer that was left logged in). Further, if the user provides their current password when choosing a new password, it allows the server to perform additional types of validation for the new password that may not otherwise be available (e.g., making sure that the new password is not too similar to the current password).

The Ping Identity Directory Server offers a password policy setting to enforce this. If the password-change-requires-current-password property is set to true, then any user changing their own password will be required to provide their current password. This applies to both password changes that use a standard LDAP modify operation and those that use the password modify extended operation. The password modify extended operation already includes a field for the current password, so meeting this requirement for that type of operation is obvious. It’s less obvious for a standard LDAP modify operation, but the way to achieve that is to provide the clear-text representation of the current password in a delete modification, and the desired new password in an add modification, like:

dn: uid=test.user,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com
changetype: modify
delete: userPassword
userPassword: oldPassword
add: userPassword
userPassword: newPassword

Note that this does not apply to administrative password resets in which one user changes the password for another user.

Enable a Password History

Password reuse is one of the most common ways for accounts to get breached. The biggest risk is when someone uses the same password across multiple sites: if one of those sites is breached and the passwords are obtained, then attackers can try the same credentials on other sites. However, it’s also a bad idea for a user to repeatedly use the same password on the same site.

Repeatedly using the same password on the same site is most commonly an issue if that site requires people to change their password, which, as already stated, is an ill-advised strategy. If you don’t enable password expiration, then people will be less likely to arbitrarily change their passwords, and therefore will be less likely to want to reuse one that they’ve chosen before.

Another common reason for someone wanting to reuse the same password is if they have accidentally locked their account by mis-typing their current password too many times. If this happens, then it’s almost certainly the result of a bad account lockout configuration, which is something that I’ll cover below.

Even if the most common reasons that a user would want to reuse a password are the result of ill-advised configurations, it’s still a good idea to prevent someone from repeating a password that they’ve already had in the past. The server already prevents a user from choosing a new password that is the same as their current password, but if you want to prevent users from repeating passwords they’ve had in the past, then the best way to do that is by enabling a password history. The password policy configuration offers a couple of properties to do this:

  • password-history-count — Specifies the maximum number of passwords to retain in the history, regardless of how long it’s been since the passwords were in use.
  • password-history-duration — Specifies the length of time to retain previous passwords in the history, regardless of how many of them have been used during that time.

In either case, the server will maintain an operational attribute with the encoded representations of the user’s former passwords, along with a timestamp indicating when the password was added to the history.

Note that if you do enable a password history, then you may also want to prevent users from changing their passwords too frequently, which you can do with the min-password-age property. This is especially true if you have configured a maximum history count because it’s a common trick for a user who really wants to reuse a previous password to change their password multiple times in quick succession until the password they want to reuse has been flushed from the history. But even though this trick is less effective if you configure a maximum duration rather than a maximum count, it’s still a good idea to prevent frequent password changes in that case too, just to avoid unnecessarily building up a large history.

A relatively short minimum password age, like a day or perhaps even an hour, should be enough of a deterrent to someone who wants to just blow out the password history so that they can reuse a password. Note, however, that the minimum password age only applies to self-changes and not administrative resets. If a user chooses a new password and then immediately forgets it so that they cannot authenticate, then an administrator will be able to reset the password even within the minimum age. And if force-change-on-reset is true, indicating that users are required to choose a new password after an administrative reset, then the minimum age will not interfere with that, either.

Don’t Allow Pre-Encoded Passwords

As previously noted, the server does not store passwords in the clear, but instead encodes all clear-text passwords that it is asked to store (ideally in a strong, non-reversible form). While it is technically possible to send the password to the server in a form that is already encoded, this is generally a very bad idea, for many reasons. Some of them include:

  • If a password is pre-encoded, the server can’t determine its clear-text representation, and therefore can’t verify that it meets the configured password quality requirements.
  • Because there are multiple ways of encoding a single password (e.g., using a different salt), there is no way to ensure that the new password isn’t just an alternate encoding for the user’s current password, or for another password in the user’s password history.
  • The Directory Server generally supports a wide range of applications. If applications pre-encode passwords before sending them to the server, then it makes it more difficult to migrate to a stronger encoding if that becomes necessary or desirable.

The Ping Identity Directory Server offers an allow-pre-encoded-passwords configuration property that controls whether it will accept pre-encoded passwords, and it has a value of false by default. We strongly recommend leaving this as the default.

We do understand that there may be legitimate cases in which it may be necessary to send pre-encoded passwords to the server. For example, if you’re synchronizing data between two sources, and if the data being synchronized includes pre-encoded passwords, then you might not have access to the clear-text password. In that case, rather than reconfiguring the password policy to allow any client to supply passwords in a pre-encoded form, a better alternative is to use the password update behavior request control in any such applications. One of the features that this control offers is a way to indicate that a pre-encoded password should be accepted on a per-change basis. The Ping Identity Synchronization Server (which is included at no additional charge with the Ping Identity Directory Server) makes use of this control for the synchronization that it performs.

Note that the value of the allow-pre-encoded-passwords property does not have any effect on LDIF import. The server will always permit pre-encoded passwords contained in an LDIF file that is loaded into the server with the import-ldif command or with the LDIF import task.

Don’t Allow Multiple Passwords

The two most common attribute types for storing passwords, userPassword (defined in RFC 4519) and authPassword (defined in RFC 3112), are both permitted to have multiple values. In theory, this means that a user could have multiple passwords. However, this is not a good idea. If a user has multiple passwords, then there is no way to control which one is used for any given authentication attempt, so all of them will be considered valid and represents the potential opportunity for the account to be breached.

Further, password policy state is not tied specifically to any password, but rather is maintained on a per-account basis. This means that if a user is allowed to have multiple passwords, then they may be able to exploit that to circumvent certain password policy functionality. For example, if password expiration is enabled (which I’ve already mentioned is a bad idea), then a user with two passwords could just keep changing one of them and continue using the other indefinitely. The same would apply to similar restrictions, like being forced to choose a new password after an administrative reset.

The Ping Identity Directory Server provides an allow-multiple-password-values configuration property to control this behavior, and it has a value of false by default. We do not recommend changing its value to true.

Configure Failure Lockout

If an attacker can get access to the encoded representation of a password, they can throw a lot of hardware at trying to crack it. But if they can’t get access to the encoded representation (and hopefully, that’s a very difficult thing to do), they can still try to crack a password by simply repeatedly trying to log in to an application that authenticates against the server. This is much slower, but it can still be quite effective for users with weak passwords.

You can make this a lot harder by limiting the number of login attempts that someone can make before the account is locked. If an account is locked, then it doesn’t matter what password is tried because any attempt will be rejected. The Ping Identity Directory Server offers support for two types of failure lockout:

  • Permanent lockout, in which you don’t specify a maximum lockout duration. In this case, the account lockout will remain in effect until an administrator resets the user’s password.
  • Temporary lockout, in which you do specify a maximum lockout duration (via the lockout-duration configuration property). In this case, the lockout will automatically be lifted after a period of time, but it can still be unlocked earlier by a password reset.

I would strongly recommend using the temporary lockout with a relatively short lockout duration (e.g., one minute). This is sufficient to severely limit the rate at which an attacker can make guesses, but it also ensures that the lockout is short enough that an administrator shouldn’t need to get involved in the case that a user accidentally locks their account but still remembers the correct password. However, I would also strongly recommend setting the lockout failure count (via the lockout-failure-count property) to be high enough that it’s very unlikely to be reached accidentally by merely fat-fingering the password. Ten failed attempts seems like a good value for this purpose.

Note that the Ping Identity Directory Server offers an additional useful feature for helping to prevent accidental failure lockout. If the ignore-duplicate-password-failures property is set to its default value of true, the server will consider repeated attempts to use the same wrong password as just a single failed attempt. This can be helpful in cases where the password has been configured in an application, and that application hasn’t been updated after the user changes their password. If you’re concerned about this scenario, then you may also want to consider enabling password retirement, as described in a later section.

Configure Password Reset Constraints

The account’s owner should be the only one to know its password. If they forget their password and they need to have it reset, there are two basic options:

  • Have the password reset by a human administrator. In this case, the administrator can choose the password themselves, or they can allow the server to generate it for them (more on this later). Either way, the administrator will end up knowing the password, which means that it should only be usable for the purpose of allowing the user to set a password of their own choosing. The force-change-on-reset configuration property can be used to enable this, and you may also want to set a value for the max-password-reset-age property to limit how long that temporary password is valid.
  • Create an automated process that allows the user to reset their own password after providing reasonable proof of their identity. To help with this, the Ping Identity Directory Server offers a feature that we call password reset tokens. A password reset token is a single-use password that can be delivered to the user through some out-of-band mechanism (e.g., email message, text message, voice call, mobile push notification, etc.) and can be provided to the password modify extended operation to allow the user to choose a new password. See the DeliverPasswordResetTokenExtendedRequest class in the LDAP SDK for more information about this feature.

Use a Strong Password Generator

The server has the ability to generate passwords under certain circumstances. Some of them include:

  • When using the password modify extended operation. If the new password field of the request is left empty, the server can generate the new password and return it in the extended response. The password generator used for this purpose is specified using the password-generator property in the password policy configuration.
  • When using the deliver password reset token extended request, as described in the previous section. The password generator used for this purpose is specified using the password-generator property in the extended operation handler configuration.

We may also introduce additional methods for generating passwords in the future.

When generating a one-time password, password reset token, or single-use token, the time frame for the generated password is inherently very limited (typically a matter of minutes). In such cases, it may be acceptable to have the password be relatively simple. For example, something like eight alphanumeric characters should be sufficient, and you may even feel comfortable with something simpler.

When using the password modify extended operation to perform an administrative reset, the time that a generated password may be valid can be limited by the max-password-reset-age property in the password policy configuration, but there is no such limit for a generated password used for a self-change. In these cases, you may want to ensure that the generated password is substantially stronger. By default, the Ping Identity Directory Server will generate a passphrase that is at least 20 characters long and consists of at least four randomly chosen words. This generated password will hopefully be something that is both memorable and easy to type, and will also serve as an example of the kind of strong passwords that you hope users choose for themselves (although it’s still a better idea to use a password manager in most cases, and to let it generate a strong random password).

Note that the password generator is not guaranteed to generate passwords that will satisfy the configured set of password validators, but the server will accept and use the generated password even if it would have been rejected if the user had chosen it for themselves. If you have eccentric password quality requirements, you may wish to customize the password generator to be more likely to create something that the server would accept.

Consider Using Password Retirement

The Ping Identity Directory Server offers a useful feature called password retirement that allows a user to change their password, but continue using their former password as an alternative to their new password for a limited period of time. This is helpful for cases in which the password might be used in multiple places (especially if it’s configured in an application, and even more especially if there might be multiple instances of that application), because it gives the user the opportunity to update all of the things that use the password without them failing immediately as soon as it is changed. I wrote an earlier blog post about password retirement, so I won’t repeat it here, but it’s definitely something to consider, at least for application accounts.

Consider Using Account Status Notifications

Another potentially useful password policy feature that the Ping Identity Directory Server offers is account status notifications. This allows the server to perform custom processing whenever certain events occur that affect user accounts, like a user’s account has been locked as a result of too many failed attempts, an authentication attempt has failed because the account is expired or has been unused for too long, a user’s password is changed or reset by an administrator, etc.

The server includes support for a couple of different types of account status notification handlers out of the box: one that is capable of sending an email message to the end user and/or to administrators when such an event occurs, and one that simply logs a message about the event. Our Server SDK also provides support for creating custom account status notification handlers, so you can integrate with other systems that you might use in your environment. We’re also going to be substantially improving our account status notification handler subsystem in the near future.

One purpose of account status notification handlers is to provide a means of letting end users know about substantial events that affect their accounts. This is useful from a security perspective because if a user sees something that indicates something may be amiss, then they can inquire about it. But account status notification handlers can also serve as a kind of auditing mechanism for these kinds of events so that administrators are made aware of things that might suggest a problem or an attack. For example, if a large number of accounts are being locked out, or if the same account is repeatedly being locked out, then that suggests someone might be trying a password guessing attack.

Alternatives to Arbitrary Password Expiration

I’ve already pointed out on multiple occasions that arbitrary password expiration is not recommended. However, there may be reasons that you want users to change their passwords that might not be simply the result of them having the same password for too long.

For example, if you believe that one or more user accounts might have had their passwords exposed (whether in the clear or in encoded form), then it’s a very good idea to require them to choose a new password. The Ping Identity Directory Server offers a couple of features to help with this:

  • The password policy offers a require-change-by-time configuration property that allows you to require all users associated with that policy to change their passwords by a specified time. Failure to comply will cause their account to be locked until the password is reset by an administrator.
  • The password policy state extended operation provides a mechanism for manipulating the account state for a user or set of users. Using this extended operation, or the manage-account tool that provides a simple command-line interface to the operation, you could put a specified account or set of accounts in a “must change password” state that will require them to change their passwords the next time they authenticate. See my previous blog post about managing password policy state for more information.

If you’re considering password expiration as a means of ensuring that users will be required to authenticate every so often or their accounts will be locked, then we offer a better alternative to that: idle account lockout. If you update the password policy to enable last login time tracking (via the last-login-time-attribute and last-login-time-format configuration properties), then the server will maintain a record of the last time that each user successfully authenticated. If you also set a value for the idle-lockout-interval property, then a user who hasn’t authenticated in at least that length of time will be locked out of their account until the password is reset by an administrator.

If the reason for forcing a password change is because you want to upgrade the password storage scheme that you’re using, you can do that without actually requiring a password change. As noted above in the section on password storage schemes, you can simply make the desired scheme the new default and mark the old scheme as deprecated. The next time a user authenticates with a password encoded with the deprecated scheme, it will be automatically re-encoded using the new default scheme.

If you have other reasons that you were considering password expiration that aren’t covered by these options, then let us know what they are, and we’ll let you know whether there might be a suitable alternative.

Other Related Settings Outside the Password Policy

There are a few other related settings that you might want to consider setting, even though they’re not strictly part of the password policy configuration. They include:

  • You should enable data encryption in the server so that data is not stored in the clear in the database. The best way to do this is to enable encryption when setting up the server, but if you need to do it after the fact, you can use the encryption-settings tool to manage the set of encryption settings definitions that are available in the server, then update the values of the the encrypt-data, encryption-settings-cipher-stream-provider, encrypt-backups-by-default, and encrypt-ldif-exports-by-default global configuration properties. Enabling encryption can be done on the fly, and any subsequent writes will cause the target entry to be encrypted, but you may still want to export the data to LDIF and re-import to ensure that all the existing data gets encrypted.
  • You may wish to configure the server to delay the response to a failed bind operation by a specified length of time (e.g., maybe a second). This can help slow down online password guessing attacks, and it can be used either in conjunction with or as an alternative to locking an account after too many failed attempts. This setting can be configured through the failed-bind-response-delay property in the LDAP connection handler configuration.
  • You may want to configure the userPassword and authPassword attributes as sensitive attributes within the server, and ensure that they can never be retrieved over LDAP, even in encoded form, and even by root users. Check out my earlier blog post about sensitive attributes for more information on this subject.
  • Consider enabling one or more two-factor authentication mechanisms. While it’s still important to ensure that users have strong passwords, two-factor authentication adds yet another layer of protection that an attacker must overcome even if they do happen to learn a user’s password. I also wrote an earlier blog post about this topic.